Stem cell treatment is the use of stem cells to treat or avert a disease or situation. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely employed stem-cell treatment, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to produce numerous sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative conditions and conditions this kind of as diabetes and heart disease, among other individuals.
Stem-cell treatment has turn out to be controversial following developments this kind of as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells making use of somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of strategies to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is typically associated to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to marketplace treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For in excess of thirty years, bone marrow has been utilized to treat individuals with cancer with conditions this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only kind of stem-cell treatment that is widely practiced. During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, even so, can’t discriminate amongst the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells inside of the bone marrow. It is this side effect of standard chemotherapy approaches that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s wholesome bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to substitute the cells lost in the host’s physique throughout treatment method. The transplanted cells also make an immune response that helps to destroy off the cancer cells this method can go as well far, even so, major to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment method.
An additional stem cell treatment called Prochymal, was conditionally authorized in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in youngsters who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem treatment based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of grownup donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.
The FDA has authorized 5 hematopoietic stem-cell goods derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment method of blood and immunological conditions.
In 2014, the European Medicines Company advised approval of limbal stem cells for individuals with extreme limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.